Autar Singh Paintal was an eminent medical scientist who made pioneered discoveries in the area of neurosciences and respiratory sciences. He is the first Indian Physiologist who was elected as the Fellow of the Royal Society, London. He was born on 24th September, 1925 in Mogok, a town located in the Northern region of the Burma (Myanmar) . His father's name was Dr. Man Singh and his mother was Rajwans Kau
FOOD INFLATION IN INDIA: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND REMEDIES [PP 5-12] [ISSUE-2]
The rate of food inflation became a serious concern in India. The scenario of food inflation had turned in quite different way after 2008.In most of the months of 2008, rate of inflation remained close to or above 10% since mid 2008. This is causing a serious concern since expenditure on food accounts for more than 50% of total household expenditures in rural and 43% in urban areas. Household in lower income categories spend much higher percentage of their budget on food compared to the higher income groups. This indicates that food inflation hurts more than any other commodity group and low income consumers are affected much more than high-income consumers The reasons for food inflation can be grouped into two different categories: those which are related to domestic economy and which follow from changes in global market. Since early 1990s, with the increase in liberalization of trade in agriculture, domestic food prices have been strongly influenced by international prices. Several other reasons also lie behind for high rate of food inflation. This paper seeks for those reasons the ways to manage food inflation, which can be checked in different possible ways.
Overcoming Exclusion in Urban Governance: A Critical Assessment of India's Smart Cities Mission [PP 13-27] [ISSUE-2]
In this paper, the Smart Cities mission in India is critically evaluated, with an emphasis on how it will affect urban governance and inclusive development. It highlights the consequences of rapid urbanisation, including inadequate infrastructure and unequal access to services, particularly affecting marginalised groups. The study underlines how effective administrative management and ICT-driven institutional changes can improve service delivery and raise urban dwellers' quality of life. It also points out some built-in difficulties, such as a technocratic and pro-market stance that gives the market sector precedence over the social sector. The study highlights issues with evictions, weakened social accountability, and forced land acquisition as a result of private sector organisations' involvement in urban planning. Using these findings as a foundation, the paper advocates for an enhanced inclusive and participatory strategy for urban governance that addresses the interests and rights of marginalised populations while promoting sustainable urban development.
Killing for Honour: A Social Disorder [PP 1-6] [ISSUE-1]
Modern privileged society has tried to enhance the prestige of women by endorsing some great terms in favour of them like Women Empowerment, Women Education etc.; but the fate of the women has changed hardly even standing on the first quarter of the twenty first century as extorsion in the form of rape, sexual harassment, dowry and women trafficking is still very common in the contemporary period. However, one such brutal incident- Honour Killing- has recently come up in the surface that unfortunately remained behind the curtain for centuries. Generally, killing of own people, relative by blood, offshoots for safeguarding of lineage from being thought to be stigmatized in the society is known as Honour Killing. This thought is nothing but the exposure of the superstitious mindset of a section of people in the society, results arbitrary killing of women. Women are not the only victims of this social curse, even men are also suffered a lot from this brutality. Since, women are the prime victims of this unacceptable phenomena, the topic demands further attention to be evaluated at a greater scale.
Horseshoe crab and rhythms within the mangrove [PP 7-8] [ISSUE-1]
Sundarban, the UNESCO world heritage site, is one of the largest mangrove forest in the world around 140,000 Ha, lies on the delta of Ganges, Hooghly of India and Brahmaputra-Meghna river of Bangladesh on the Bay of Bengal. As forming delta Sundraban signifies as a developing ecology with new delta formation, colonization of new species and flourishing communities. The Biosphere reserve, holding up an extraordinary bouquet of floral and faunal diversity. As an intercoastal and intertidal zones it serves as union for many ecosystems. On land of respiratory roots dwells one of the mightiest apex predator the Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and on the other hand its muddy saltwater bottom harbours some cryptic crawlers- the horseshoe crabs.
Chocolate: the "food of God"- a review [PP 9-21] [ISSUE-1]
Chocolate, a product of ground seeds of the cacao tree pods, is very popular among people for its tempting taste and health benefits. It is usually sweet, but dark chocolates are more bitter than white chocolates due to more cocoa solids and less sugar. Chocolate is prepared by using different processes like fermentation, leaning, roasting, breaking winning, milling, the addition of flavouring substances, sugar, Cocoa, milk, cocoa butter, mixing, refining, tempering and molding.Chocolate is used in various recipes, such as desserts, cakes, pudding, mousse, cookies, and beverages like hot chocolate, chocolate milk, etc.In the past, chocolate consumption was considered a sin associated with obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Even physicians warn patients about consuming a large number of chocolates. But after the discovery of biologically active phenolic components that possess antioxidant activity, the perceptions changed. Flavonol-rich chocolate helps to reduce insulin resistance, lower blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, gives protection against skin damage. Nowadays, It is used as a novel therapy for treating different conditions.
Women’s contribution in History of Indian Nationalist Movement up to Independence: A brief analysis [PP 22-32] [ISSUE-1]
Awakening of Indian women in colonial period occurred as a result of many socio- cultural factors namely spread of western education and emergence of Indian Renaissance, impact of feminist movement of the west etc. Indian nationalism flourished in the 2nd half of 19th century when our anti- colonial leadership comprehended the potentiality of woman power. The chaste woman worshipped in nationalist ideology was undoubtedly accorded a coveted position of cultural superiority to the women , influenced by westernization , and was praised as guardians of moral and spiritual qualities within home. Sita, Damayanti and Sabitri were their ultimate idols . During the Swadeshi Movement of 1905 , women of Bengal crossed boundaries of their homes and actively participated in political movements. Gandhiji always acknowledged spiritual strength of Indian women and even fallen womenfolk did not hesitate to participate in his mass movements such as the Khilafat- Non Cooperation , Civil Obedience and Quit India Movements. Sarojini Naidu and Kamala Devi Chattopadhyay were significant names of the Gandhian Salt- Satyagraha . But it was very true that women participated in the nationalist movement upto independence along the lines dictated by patriarchal guardians of male- dominated society and women’s special problems such as education , inheritance , marriage and employment etc. were mainly neglected. But women’s spirit was undaunted and they took part courageously in anti- British rebellion of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose and became prominent pillars of his INA to achieve their motherland India’s independence from the barbaric clutches of the imperialist administration.
Some medicinally important Leguminous Plants of North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal [PP 33-37] [ISSUE-1]
The third-largest family of angiosperms, which includes trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs, is the Fabaceae, usually referred to as Leguminosae or the "pea family" because of its widespread distribution. The most significant commercial species are Medicago sativa L., Pisum sativum L., Arachis hypogaea L., and Glycine max (L.) Merr. Herbaceous species are more common in temperate zones; tropical species are more common. The leaves are often trifoliate or palmately complex, though occasionally they are pinnately compound. A few species only have basic leaves or leaves that resemble scales. The fruit is a legume-like pod that breaks apart to release the seeds when it dries up. Since ethnobotanical knowledge offers a fundamental understanding of phytotherapeutic activities and principles, it provides a solid foundation for research on phytochemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. Even in the twenty-first century, a sizable section of the local populace relies solely on their own means of alternative means for food, medicine, and survival through utilising and maintaining forest resources. This kind of research should therefore be prioritised with careful consideration and adequate planning, paying particular attention to the preservation of medicinally valuable rare and threatened plant species.
রাষ্ট্রযন্ত্রের নারীদ্রোহ : প্রেক্ষিত – বাংলা কবিতা [PP 38-41] [ISSUE-1]
" …………………………. ক্ষত্রিয় ধর্ম্ম এই কি, নৃমণি ?
কোথা ধনু, কোথা তূণ, কোথা চর্ম্ম, অসি? "১
'বীরাঙ্গনা' জনা স্বামী নীলধ্বজকে পুত্রহন্তাকারীর বিরুদ্ধে প্রতিহিংসার উদ্দীপ্তরসে প্রদীপ্ত করতে চাইলেন কঠোর উচ্চারণে। মাতৃক্রোড় শূন্য করে এক 'মা' কে রাষ্ট্রযন্ত্র যখন শাসনতন্ত্রের নির্মমতার মুখোমুখি দাঁড় করায়, মধুসূদনের বীরাঙ্গনা 'জনা' সেই নারীদ্রোহের উত্তর দেয়। আবার রাষ্ট্রযন্ত্রের নামে রাজা দশরথ যখন ভরতকে রাজপদে অভিষেক না করে, রামকে যৌবরাজ্যে অভিষেক করান, ভরতমাতা কেকয়ী দশরথের এই প্রতিজ্ঞাভঙ্গের অধর্মাচরণ পারেননি সহজে মেনে নিতে। রাষ্ট্রনায়ককে 'পরম অধর্ম্মাচারী রঘু-কুল-পতি'২ সম্বোধন করতে দ্বিধা করেনি মাইকেলের 'বীরাঙ্গনা'। উনিশ শতকে মাইকেল মধুসূদনের কাব্যে নারীর প্রতি রাষ্ট্রের শোষণ এবং নারীর আত্মজাগরণের দীপ্তির ধারাবাহিকতা পরবর্তীকালেও কবিদের হাতে উঠে এসেছে সমসাময়িকতার প্রেক্ষিতে।
DNA minor groove binder Netropsin alters chromatin structure [PP 42-62] [ISSUE-1]
Netropsin is an oligopeptide with antibiotic and antiviral activity. (Hahn et al, 1975). Netropsin was first isolated from the actinobacterium Streptomyces netropsis. It belongs to the class of pyrrole-amidine antibiotics. This drug is considered to be a classic minor groove binder (Wartell et al, 1974). Netropsin displaces the spine of hydration and fits within minor groove in A-A-T-T center. It widens the groove slightly and bends the helix axis back by 8 degrees, but neither unwinds nor elongates the double helix. The drug molecule is held in place by amide NH hydrogen bonds that bridge adenine N-3 and O-2 atoms, exactly as with spine of hydration (Kopka et al, 1985).
Chromatin: A Mini Review on its structural aspects [ISSUE-2]
Chromatin may be termed as a hallmark of eukaryotic life. In eukaryotes, genomic DNA is packaged with a roughly equal mass of histones (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4) and non-histones (HMG, Topo II, SMC) proteins to form large macromolecular assemblages, collectively called chromatin. The most striking property of a chromosome is the length of each molecule of DNA incorporated and folded into it. The human genome of 3x109 bp, which would extend over a metre if unravelled, is compacted into a nucleus of only 10-5 m in diameter. It is an astonishing feat of engineering to organize the long linear DNA molecule within ordered structures that can reversibly fold and unfold within the chromosome. Histones, by forming nucleosomes, are responsible for the first level of structural organization . Hundreds of thousands of nucleosomes are further compacted into hierarchical structures of increasing complexity, yet largely unknown architecture . So, any mechanism that has the potential to alter the level of compaction must have an inherent role in regulating DNA accessibility.
A study on the Attitude of College Teachers about CBCS (CHOICE BASED CREDIT SYSTEM) [PP 35-45] [ISSUE-2]
It can be observed globally that the implementation of the CBCS system is beneficial for the institutions along with the colleges. It has been adopted by several institutes as a student-centric approach to expand the scope of education and provide benefits to both teachers and students. It is also observable that CBCS system has not only been planning to implement in high school education, but also for the college curriculum it is a promising style to make both the teachers and students benefitted. This study, it is therefore investigated whether college teachers have a positive attitude towards the CBCS system or not. In terms of this, the college teachers were distinguished in groups as per the full-time-part-time, urban-rural and male-female categories. This study followed a survey method to examine the support or opposition of proposed hypotheses and then revealed the research outcomes with justifications.
'জাতীয়' সাহিত্যের প্রসারে সাহিত্য আকাদেমি এবং ন্যাশনাল বুক ট্রাস্ট-এর ভূমিকা [PP 28-34] [ISSUE-2]
'জাতীয় সাহিত্য' শব্দবন্ধটি আমরা বিভিন্ন আলোচনাসভায়, সাহিত্য-সংস্কৃতি বিষয়ক গবেষণাপত্রে, বইয়ের পাতায়, এমনকি শিক্ষিত সমাজের সাধারণ আলোচনাতেও বার বার উচ্চারিত হতে শুনি। এই 'জাতীয়' সাহিত্যের ধারণা আবার পরিপ্রেক্ষিতের বিচারে আলাদা আলাদা অর্থ বহন করে। ঊনিশ শতকের জাতীয়তাবাদী আন্দোলনের প্রথমদিকে বঙ্কিমচন্দ্র 'জাতীয় সাহিত্য' বলতে যা বুঝিয়েছেন-- এখনকার দৃষ্টিতে তাকে কিছুটা সীমিত বলে মনে হওয়া অস্বাভাবিক নয়, কারণ বঙ্কিমি চেতনায় সেই জাতীয় সাহিত্য ছিল মূলতঃ হিন্দু-বাঙালির অতীত-গৌরব ও ইতিহাসের পুনর্জাগরণের প্রয়াস। আবার রবীন্দ্রনাথের চোখে জাতীয়তার ধারণা এবং তার সঙ্গে সংযুক্ত সাহিত্য-সংস্কৃতির ভূমিকা ধরা দিয়েছিল অন্যভাবে। স্বাধীনতার পর যখন বিভিন্ন ভাষা, ধর্ম ও সাংস্কৃতিক ঐতিহ্যের বৈচিত্র্যে ভরপুর অথচ স্পষ্ট ঐক্যের বিশেষ কোনো ধারণাবিহীন একটি দেশকে কোন না কোন ভাবে একত্রিত করার রাজনৈতিক ও সাংস্কৃতিক প্রয়োজন দেখা দিল, তখন আবার নতুন ক'রে ভাবনাচিন্তা শুরু হল এই জাতীয় সাহিত্য নিয়ে--আর সেই সঙ্গে এল বহুভাষাভাষী রাষ্ট্রের ভাষাগত সমস্যার দিকটিকেও সরকারি দৃষ্টিতে বিবেচনা করার প্রয়োজন। স্বাধীনতা-উত্তর ভারতে একে একে সাহিত্য আকাদেমি, ললিত কলা আকাদেমি এবং সঙ্গীত-নাটক আকাদেমির প্রতিষ্ঠা--সাহিত্য-সংস্কৃতির মাধ্যমে রাষ্ট্রীয় ঐক্যের চেতনাকে দৃঢ় করার তাগিদেরই ফলশ্রুতি এসব ।
GENDER DISPARITY IN EDUCATION: A STUDY OF INDIA [ISSUE-2]
Gender disparity or gender discrimination refers to the unequal treatment of individuals based on their gender. Gender biasedness among men and women in our country can be observed whether in the fields of education, or employment, or health, or wages, etc.
European philosophy originating from Plato and Aristotle has arranged
the senses hierarchically with sight at the top. Later after Hegel and Descartes the
supremacy of sight in human life was also emphasized. Aspects of reason, logic
and intellect were regarded as "human" in contrast to emotion, feeling and
sensory gratification which were regarded as "animalistic". Sight was associated
with intellect and hence was upheld as the human sense, while smell and some
other senses were associated with emotion and therefore believed to be
animalistic. Although contrasting perspectives were also present, particularly that
of Locke, Hume and Marx who emphasized on role of senses in human life. Not
only as gateway of knowledge but also something as the very core of human
existence. Nevertheless the dominant trend was that of the supremacy of sight in
the 'hierarchy of senses'.