The article investigates the reasons behind Bangladesh's ongoing bilateral trade imbalance with India. It concludes that Bangladesh's exports are equivalent to those of India, implying that the country's export competitiveness is excellent. Complementarity is further hampered by the lack of match between Bangladesh export and Indian import. The article examines the level of trade similarity and complementarity in intra-industry bilateral trade using several trade-related indices such as RCA and Cosine measurements. GL indices are also used to investigate the feasibility of intra-industry trade between the two nations. Finally, an econometric time series analysis is performed to determine the factors that influence angladesh's bilateral trade imbalance. The nature of export has been discovered to be random, and the trade imbalance has a paradoxical relationship with the exchange rate. The flow of remittances has been discovered to fuel the trade imbalance, which has a paradoxical relationship with the currency rate. In order to avoid Dutch disease and lower the bilateral trade imbalance, the article advises that Bangladesh should follow an appropriate exchange rate strategy and seek for enhanced diversity in its export structure.
Indo-Bangladesh Relations: Viewed through the Lens of China's Growing Presence in Bangladesh [PP 7-13] [ISSUE-1]
India and Bangladesh have had long-standing socio-cultural, religious, and linguistic
relations. In 1971, India was instrumental in Bangladesh's independence . As a result, Bangladesh became a natural ally of India. Both countries established diplomatic relations after signing the Treaty of Friendship on March 19, 1972. Bangladesh continues to be a crucial playing partner for India in the Indo-Pacific region. Maintaining stability in its northernmost part is critical as a bridge
to Southeast Asia. Over the last five decades, the two countries have strengthened their political, economic, trade, and cultural ties while also establishing a comprehensive institutional framework to promote bilateral relations.
Challenges and Opportunities of Indo- Bangladesh Bilateral Relations in the 21st Century: Historical Imperatives and Future Direction [PP 14-27] [ISSUE-1]
India and Bangladesh are close and friendly neighbours now and while geographically
they share the longest borders in the neighbourhood, therefore the bilateral ties between India and Bangladesh over the four decades have seen several highs and lows. Significantly, historical and cultural linkages, economic interdependence and geo-strategic interests make India and Bangladesh politically vital to each other. It is fact that, the new phase that began since January 2010 has turned the bilateral trajectory on a path of bilateral cooperation. Both Bangladesh and India have had their relations shaped by history, culture, geography, economics and above all,
geopolitics. While India is a geopolitical, economic and military giant involved in the affairs of the world, over the years Bangladesh has been struggling to ensure the sustenance and preservation of human security within its borders.
Growth of Bengali Nationalism and the Liberation of East Pakistan: India’s Assistance in the Liberation of East Pakistan and Formation of Bangladesh (1947-1971) [PP 28-41] [ISSUE-1]
The subcontinent was partitioned in August 1947. This partition not only divided the
subcontinent but also caused a division within a division. Pakistan was created with two racially, culturally and linguistically diverse wings – West and East Pakistan – separated by 1600 kilometres of Indian territory. Islam was the only link which united the people of East and West Pakistan whose inhabitants spoke different languages, followed different scripts and belonged to different cultures. Although the majority of the people in Pakistan were Muslims, a considerable number of its inhabitants, particularly in the Eastern region were Hindus, Buddhists and Christians (Chakrabarty, 2004, p.68).
Indo-Bangladesh: A Political and Diplomatic Era [PP 42-50] [ISSUE-1]
India is a land of unity with diversity and Bangladesh is a coherent country with similar religion and culture. But India was the first country along with Bhutan to recognise Bangladesh as an independent Nation state and immediately ties a diplomatic relation with Bangladesh after the Liberation war 1971. Geographically India shares its largest boundary with Bangladesh of approximately 4,096 kilometre. They are also the common members of SAARC, BIMSTEC,IORA and the Commonwealth. In spite of friendly relationship they had been faced some critical issues. At present descriptive analysis method is followed to complete this qualitative study, primary and secondary information has been taken from various books, journals, websites ,internets and other relevant sources. The major outcome of the study is India plays a very important role in the formation of Bangladesh from1971-74 but after 1974 the relationship worsened because of the closer ties with islamic nation. And this time the military rule in Bangladesh over a decade worsened the relationship also. And since the liberation period unauthorised immigrants appears in the eastern and North Eastern part of the country that increased the social political and economic
tensions of the country. Even in covid-19 pandemic situation India provided medical training to Bangladeshi professionals, test kids and medicines. So it is clear that indo-bangladesh bilateral relation faced many ups and downs over the last 50 years but their relationship had reached a new height through various agreements and understandings.
India is the largest democracy in the world and Bangladesh is one of the most populous country in the South Asia. Both countries shares historical, geographical, social and economic ties. Major part of Bangladesh is surrounded by Indian state, which sometimes makes the country feel 'locked by India'. India and Bangladesh share a common border of almost 4096 km, bordering five Indian states of West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. The emergence of Bangladesh as an independent sovereign state in South Asia is a historic event. Relying on India's massive military assistance, Bangladesh’s freedom fighters have been able to realise their aspirations for Independence.
India's Policy towards Bangladeshi Migrants: Need for New Approach* [PP 55-62] [ISSUE-1]
India;'s policy to Bangladeshi migrants is by large linked with the domestic root of foreign policy. While domestic actors to foreign policy encapsulates a wide range of individuals, interest groups, and business and political forces (among others) that attempt to influence foreign policy decision-making; India's policy towards Bangladeshi migrants is influenced by the political forces of West Bengal. India's policy towards Bangladesh, however, depends to a large extent with West Bengal's interest and perception. West Bengal government supported a range of bilateral agreements on river-water sharing, trade, transit rights for India through Bangladesh and border settlements. But the issue of migration is making bilateral relations impulsive.
Dystopic Borderlands, Disgruntled Geographies and Ethnic Angst: Complicating the Development drives between/among Bangladesh, India and Myanmar [PP 63-69] [ISSUE-1]
The experience of partition in India’s North-eastern borderlands showcases two distinct phases, namely the Partition of Bengal in 1905 and the partition in 1947 and the spectre of preceding boundary demarcations as outlined by the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulations of 1873 and the Chin Lushai Hills Regulations of 1896. Partition, then, was a very different phenomenon in North-eastern India. The partition of the subcontinent aggravated the geopolitical isolation of the North-
East. It propelled the emergence of an ethno-cultural consciousness and the resurgence of divergent claims or ethnic angst over the land and its resources.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS OF RURAL LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA AND BANGLADESH - A STUDY [PP 70-77] [ISSUE-1]
Local governments (municipality and panchayat) play crucial roles in the infrastructure development of their country. In basic level, local governments ensure a stable environment in which development can take place. They provide physical as well as economic infrastructure such as, water supply, waste management and building roads and also promote education, employment opportunities, health services etc. local development is a necessary complement to efforts at the
national scale. Any development is to measures to strengthen the democratic structure of society to improve income of rural households, health and safety mechanism. After independence state as well as central government consist various committees to increase the importance of these bodies. Rural program entirely depends on panchayat system. Rural development has been massively a government supported process rather than people led process in India. An appropriate structure is wanted to formulate and implement rural development programs. After independence, both central and state governments focused on social, economic and planning policy. This planning policy
mainly associated with agriculture and rural development. At present state or central government mainly working on four aspects, there is 1) democratization of panchayts 2) more focused on health, welfare and education systems 3) strengthening of resources of panchayats and 4) transfer more power to the local bodies.
Unravelling the Indo-Bangladesh ‘Samparka’: One Promise or Turbulence? [PP 78-82] [ISSUE-1]
India and Bangladesh have shared ties of warmth and friendship since times after India as the first country recognized Bangladesh as an independent state and relations took their turn between the two countries after the latter’s independence in 1971. Both the nations possess a shared bond of historical, cultural, secular and democratic linkages to name a few all required for a strengthened partnership between both.
Principles of New Public Management : Challenges in Higher Education [ISSUE-2]
The term New Public Management was coined by scholars from UK and Australia (Hood,
1991 and Jackson, 1991), who were working in the areas of public administration. New
Public Management (NPM), which emerged in the 1980s, was an approach to run public
service organizations more like a business and to improve the efficiency of the Government by using private sector management models. New Public Management borrowed ideas and management models from the private sector to make the public sector more focused on priority of citizens who were the recipient of the services or customers to the public sector. New public management system also proposed a more decentralized control of resources. This concept proposed a new perspective of the organizational design in the public sector, however after a decade, the meaning of this term in discussions and debates underwent several turns and twists.
Information society is a society where one needs information at every walk of life.
Information should be communicated and shared for creating new knowledge. Information
explosion has challenged the ways modern library functions and provides services to its users. No library can acquire all the documents that are being published till date. Hence, libraries are unable to meet the varied needs of its users. This has compelled the libraries to explore alternative ways of collection development, which will be both cost effective and economic. Recently, open access information resources have proved to be useful for research and study. At the same time, demand for the use of licensed information resources continues. Under these circumstances, library consortia came as a relief to the library community. An attempt has been made to briefly discuss the concept, the need, the advantages and disadvantages of library consortia and various consortia initiatives in India, helping towards resource sharing and propagation of knowledge.
Life and Teachings of Sarada Devi: A Milestone in History of Gender in India [ISSUE-2]
Sarada Devi (1853- 1920) , wife of Ramakrishna Paramahansa, famous
Dakshineshwar Kali temple priest , emerged as a major cult figure after death of her husband and was revered as Sri Ma or Holy Mother in contemporary Bengal. Ramakrishna used to identify all women as manifestations of Ma Anandamoyee and this extremely valorized mother- son relationship which later undoubtedly took patriotic colour was reflected in the journey of life of Sarada Devi whose traditionalist mother- goddess image was established through endeavour of Swami Vivekananda, most illustrious disciple of Ramakrishnadev and later by Nivedita. Sarada was completely engaged only in household duties during lifetime of her renowned husband and recalled her life with Ramakrishnadev in Dakshineshwar as a tale of bliss. But she used to live in a tiny, dismal room with a doorway so low that anybody would hit his/her head entering it and there was no latrine for womenfolk.
Swarnakumari Devi and changing role of women in late colonial Bengal: From mother to the daughters [ISSUE-2]
Swarnakumari Devi (1856-1925), the earliest woman novelist and one of the most renowned literary figures of her time was born in a crucial phase of Bengal’s history. In colonial India she was one of the earliest Bengali women who attended 5th session of Indian National Congress in 1889 as a delegate along with Kadambini Gangooly (1861-1923), the first female physician of colonial India as well as of south Asia. It indicates that role of women was gradually changing and they step out for greater cause like serving the nation and so on. Their participations in Indian National Congress lead the changing perception of Gender in the process of modernization in late nineteenth century Bengal as well as India. The socio-cultural and political scenario of Bengal was undergoing a process of gradual but significant changes at that time. Swarnakumari was born in 28 August, 1856. She was the eleventh child and the fifth daughter of Debendranath Tagore and Sarada Devi. Debendranath
promoted women education and he was an initiator of public welfare. Debendranath sent his eldest daughter Saudamini Devi (1847-1920) to school soon after the establishment of Bethune School.
VALUES AND ETHICS IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN INDIA AND GERMANY: A CRITICAL COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT [ISSUE-2]
In this 21st century, India and Germany are two important countries in respect of
many dimensions especially in terms of education. In this present world, India is the largest democracy and also a developing country. On the other side, Germany is familiar as a well-developed economy and also having advanced infrastructure across several areas of its society. This study aimed to compare values and ethics in secondary education between India and Germany. It is mainly a qualitative study. The data were collected through different internet sources, different research papers, books and various official websites related to secondary education of India and Germany. The data were analyzed critically with logical approach considering various factors related to the values and ethics in secondary education. The study has revealed that in case of values and ethics in secondary education in India and Germany, there are much significant differences between these two countries although there exists some similarities. It is also revealed that there are critical issues on
which India should give attention immediately in terms of values and ethical ducation for holistic development of the country’s secondary education.
Biofilm, the microbial threat and its prevention by application of herbal agents [ISSUE-2]
Many plants possess antimicrobial agents and provide effective remedies from biofilm related infection. Investigation of plants from different ethno botanical usage groups for inhibition of growth and biofilm infection. Cells embedded in biofilm are up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics compared to their planctonic ones. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain biofilms drug resistance. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. It has been well documented that medicinal plants and natural compounds confer considerable antibacterial activity against various microorganisms including cariogenic and periodontal pathogens.
The impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on the Economy: An event-study approach [ISSUE-2]
The effects of the Covid 19 on economic activities across various sectors ranging from the FMCG sector to the Oil and Gas sector have distinctly impacted every citizen of every country. This paper seeks to use the Event Study Approach in order to find out which sectors were significantly affected by this outbreak, how different Indian sectors reacted to the changing global situations in the crisis, starting from the lockdowns in China to a halt in international trade and travel, and also to the domestic happenings from the discovery of the first case in the country, to crossing the 15000 mark in just 2 months. The data used in this study are daily closing prices of the Nifty 50, the benchmark broad based stock market Index, by the National Stock Exchange of India and the different sectoral indicesthat portray the performances of the sectors and the sentiment of the market towards the same. The implication is,
particularly, of interest for the portfolio managers who are engaged in devising diversification strategies for their portfolios and for analysing the aspects that cause firm specific and market specific variability in the stock returns.
"ও পারেতে বৃষ্টি এল,
এ পারেতে মেঘের মাথা
একশো মানিক জ্বালা, বাদল হাওয়ায় মনে পড়ে
"বিষ্টি পড়ে টাপুর টুপুর
নাদে এল বান
বাংলার বিখ্যাত লৌকিক ছড়া "বৃষ্টি পড়ে টাপুর টুপুর এর অভিনব প্রায়োগিক একটি ক্ষেত্র উপরোক্ত রবীন্দ্রনাথের 'শিশু' কাব্যগ্রন্থের এই কবিতাংশটি। আসলে, সমাজ-সংস্কৃতি সাহিত্যকে নিবিড়ভাবে অন্তরে বুনন করে, বৈজ্ঞানিক আতশ কাচে চোখ রেখে তাকে দেখার এক নাম বৈজ্ঞানিক দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি রবীন্দ্রনাথ ও বৈজ্ঞানিক চিন্তা-চেতনার প্রসঙ্গ ইদানী আলোচ্য বিষয় তো বটেই, পাশাপাশি লোকসংস্কৃতির অন্যতম ধারা লোকসাহিত্য রবীন্দ্রনাথের হাতে নবজীবন লাভ করে যুক্তিসঙ্গত বৈজ্ঞানিক ক্ষেত্রকেও উন্মুক্ত করেছে। বিজ্ঞানের সাথে ওতপ্রোতভাবে জড়িয়ে যেমন আছে যুক্তিগ্রাহ্য মনোভঙ্গি, তেমনই আছে ক্ষেত্র সমীক্ষা, তথ্য সংগ্রহ, তথ্যের প্রায়োগিক দিক এবং পদ্ধতির প্রয়োগে বিশ্লেষণভঙ্গি ইত্যাদি বিভিন্ন সূক্ষ্ম প্রযুক্তিচেতনা। প্রথমেই ধরা যাক, ক্ষেত্রসমীক্ষা ও তথ্য সংগ্রহের দিকটি। ১৩০০ বঙ্গাব্দের ১৭ আষাঢ় অধুনা বাংলাদেশের শিলাইদহের কুমড়াখালি থেকে রবীন্দ্রনাথের সরলা রায়কে লেখা একটি চিঠি এক্ষেত্রে বিশেষ তাৎপর্যপূর্ণ।
সাময়িকী থেকে সংবাদপত্রে সাহিত্যের রসধারা [ISSUE-2]
সাহিত্য তিলে তিলে গড়ে উঠেছে, নিজেকে পরিবর্তিত ও পরিবর্ধিত করেছে, সমকালীন বাস্তবতার চাদরে মুড়ে নিজেকে সজ্জিত করেছে- আর লেখকদের সেইসব সৃষ্টি মুদ্রণমাধ্যমের হাত ধরে পৌঁছে গেছে পাঠকমহলে।মুদ্রণযন্ত্র আবিষ্কারের পর মুদ্রণমাধ্যমই একমাত্র আশা ভরসার স্থল। প্যাপিরাস গাছের বাকল, কাপড়ে সাহিত্য রচনা এবং সংরক্ষণ কিংবা গুহার প্রাচীরে সাহিত্য খোদাই-এর তুলনায় তা অনেকবেশী গ্রহণযোগ্য। নতুন মাধ্যমের যুগের সূচনাও তখন শুরু হয়নি।যদিও বর্তমান দিনেও পাঠকের বহুলাংশ সাহিত্য রসাস্বাদন কালে নতুন বই-এর আঘ্রাণ এবং ছাপার কালির ছোপ হাতে পেতে বেশী আগ্রহী।তবে মুদ্রণমাধ্যম বলতে ব্যক্তিগতভাবে যে আমার চোখের সামনে ভেসে ওঠে তা হল সংবাদপত্র ও সাময়িকপত্রগুলি।
Ethno implying the study of races and botany is the study of plants. The learned knowledge of how various human cultures that live near to nature use biological resources is the subject of ethnobotany. As a multidisciplinary science, ethno-botany is founded on an organic and intimate connection. Ethnobotany is now a significant and critical area of research and development in the fields of resource management, sustainable biodiversity use, and socioeconomic development. Ethnobotanical knowledge helps in area of research and development in the fields of resource management, sustainable biodiversity use, and socioeconomic development. Any plants are used in agriculture, medicines, edible plants, crop plants etc.